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Pneumonia - What is? Symptoms! Prevention! Treatment!

Pneumonia lightbox[Pneumonia]Pneumonia


Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of one or both lungs, which is usually caused by infection of viruses (such as the flu virus) or bacteria (the most common cause is a type of bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae) and less commonly other microorganisms (fungi), certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases. This inflammation causes the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli inside lungs to fill with fluid. This makes it harder for the lungs to work properly.

In winter the number of cases of pneumonia rises. This is because of infection spreading from person to person, and also because other infections are more common in the winter, such as influenza (flu). An infection with flu can lower your immune system, increasing your risk of picking up pneumonia.




The most common symptoms of pneumonia are:

  • Cough (with mucus (sputum) from lungs, which may be rusty or green or tinged with blood);
  • Fever;
  • Fast breathing and feeling short of breath;
  • Shaking and "teeth-chattering" chills;
  • Chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in;
  • Fast heartbeat;
  • Feeling very tired or very weak;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Diarrhea.


There are a number of steps you can take to help prevent getting pneumonia.

  • Stop smoking. You're more likely to get pneumonia if you smoke.
  • Avoid people who have infections that sometimes lead to pneumonia.
  • Stay away from people who have colds, the flu, or other respiratory tract infections.
  • If you haven't had measles or chickenpox or if you didn't get vaccines against these diseases, avoid people who have them.
  • Wash your hands This helps prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria that may cause pneumonia.

Treatment of pneumonia consists of oral antibiotics, rest, simple analgesics, and fluids usually suffice for complete resolution. However, those with other medical conditions, the elderly, or those with significant trouble breathing may require more advanced care. If the symptoms worsen, the pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, or complications occur, hospitalization may be required.

Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, doxycycline (Doxyderma), clarithromycin, azithromycin (Zitara) or erythromycin (Eritromicine) improve outcomes in those with bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotic choice depends initially on the characteristics of the person affected, such as age, underlying health, and the location the infection was acquired.

Typical antibiotics will not work for viral pneumonia; sometimes, however, your doctor may use antiviral medication. Viral pneumonia usually improves in 1 to 3 weeks.


The best way to maintain a healthy body during the cold winter season


The cold winter, limited movements and staying in open spaces are the reason of winter depression.

Walking for 30 minutes every day relieves immediately all negative energies and transforms them into positive energy.

Activities outside during the winter have wonderful advantages on health. Scientific research provides facts that prove the increasing of the availability and productivity of winter activities.

Natural light and cold or fresh air strengthen blood circulation immune system and improve the physical, emotional and spiritual health.

Cold air balances hormones and assists in the loss of kilograms that are necessary to strengthen the heart and respiratory system; speeding metabolism because the body expends extra energy to warm the temperature.

Do not forget family friendly events, which include throwing snowballs and sliding on skis, conclude with hot winter drinks that warm the body and soul, they are experiences that leave traces in memory and remembered long.


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What is Green Cross? The difference between the Green Cross and the Red Cross !

Çfarë është kryqi jeshil? Ndryshimi midis kryqit jeshil dhe kryqit të kuq! lightbox[kryqi]Çfarë është kryqi jeshil? Ndryshimi midis kryqit jeshil dhe kryqit të kuq!


We all know that Green Cross is a symbol with which mainly we identify pharmacies, but few are those who know the meaning of this symbol.

What is Green Cross?

The difference between the Green Cross and the Red Cross.


Green Cross is a symbol of nature and life. To represent life in a spiritual sense there is no more suitable colour than green. Generally today, a green cross has a secular meaning and the most common use is health care. In particular, the green cross represents First Aid.

The Red Cross of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is an emblem protected under the Geneva Conventions Act and cannot be used without permission. Contrary to popular belief, the Red Cross is not a public-domain First Aid symbol.

The International Standards Organization recommends that a white cross on green background is used as a First Aid symbol. A variation is a green cross on white field, recommended by ISO, it is still widely recognized as a first aid symbol.

In Germany, for example, is the Deutsches Grunes Kreuz e.V. (German Green Cross) was founded in 1948. It does not restrict itself to human health, but also has concern for the protection of animals and plants.

In Korea is the headquarters of the Green Cross Corp, named as such since 1971, and whose main business is pharmaceuticals.

In Japan a flag with a green cross (midori-juji) on a white field is frequently flown on construction sites and factories to encourage workers to remember health and safety. It also appears on badges and arm bands for the same purpose and is occasionally seen as a cross-within-a-cross.


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Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders! lightbox[Disorders]Sleep Disorders!


What Are Sleep Disorders?

These conditions affect how much and how well you sleep. Causes range from poor habits that keep you awake to medical problems that disrupt your sleep cycle. If you don't feel rested in the mornings, see your doctor. Not getting enough shuteye is a serious problem that can threaten your health and safety.


The Dangers of Not Getting Enough ZZZs

Lack of sleep can take a toll on nearly every part of your life. Research links sleep deprivation to car accidents, relationship troubles, poor job performance, job-related injuries, memory problems, and mood disorders. Recent studies also suggest sleep disorders may contribute to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.


Symptoms of a Sleep Disorder

Symptoms depend on the type you have, but you might:

  • Feel very sleepy during the day
  • Have trouble falling or staying asleep
  • Snore
  • Stop breathing briefly and often while asleep (apnea)
  • Have uncomfortable feelings in your legs and the urge to move them (restless legs syndrome)


How Much Shuteye Do You Need?

Needs vary from person to person, but the general guidelines are:

  • 16 hours for infants
  • 9 hours for teenagers
  • 7-8 hours for adults

Keep in mind that some adults do fine with 5 hours, while others need as many as 10.



It’s normal to have trouble sleeping once in a while, but when the problem lingers night after night, you have insomnia. Do you lie awake for hours? Do you wake up too early and not able to drift off again? Do you wake up repeatedly throughout the night? Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder ,affecting a third of adults at some point in their lives.


Insomnia and Sleep Hygiene

In many cases, insomnia is related to bad habits before bed. Do you drink coffee in the afternoon or evening? Do you smoke or eat heavy foods at night? Do you go to bed at a different time each night? Do you fall asleep with the television on?


Insomnia and Mental Health

Mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder can also cause insomnia. Unfortunately, some of the medications used to treat these conditions can also cause sleep problems. If you think you’re losing ZZZs and your medication is to blame, talk to your doctor about adjusting your treatment.


Insomnia and Medical Conditions

Trouble sleeping is often linked to health problems such as:

  • Arthritis
  • Heartburn
  • Chronic pain
  • Asthma
  • COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
  • Heart failure
  • Thyroid problems
  • Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's


Other Causes

Pregnancy is another reason for insomnia, especially in the first and third trimesters. Menopause is, too, as hot flashes are uncomfortable. Both men and women tend to have sleep problems after 65. And shift workers and frequent flyers can get a circadian rhythm disorder. This means their “internal body clock” is out of whack.


Sleep Apnea

This means your breathing stops and starts over and over while you’re sleeping. The pauses last several seconds and trigger a switch from deep to light sleep. Apnea can make you very sleepy during the day. You might not even know you have it. But your spouse or partner can certainly tell you about your snores, snorts, and gasps.


Restless Legs Syndrome

Do you have an irresistible urge to move your legs? Do you have uncomfortable feelings in them, like a throb or tingle? Many describe it as pins and needles or a creepy-crawly sensation. It gets worse at night, which makes it tough to catch some winks. And you might have twitches that wake you up.



Do you find it hard to get through the day without naps, even after a good night’s rest? With narcolepsy, you can’t control it and suddenly fall asleep. Other warning signs include:

  • Loss of muscle control with strong emotions
  • Dream-like hallucinations as you fall asleep or wake up
  • Dreams during naps
  • When you wake up, you might also feel like you can’t move.



Do you get out of bed and wander around at night without knowing it? Do people tell you the next morning about your crazy adventures, things you don’t remember? It’s most common in children between the ages of 4 and 8, but it can happen to anyone.


Sleep Diary

If you think you have a sleep disorder, tell your doctor. He might ask you to write down your habits for 1-2 weeks. Include:

  • What time you got in and out of bed
  • How long and how well you slept
  • The amount of time you laid awake
  • What you ate/drank (especially caffeine and alcohol) and when
  • Your emotions and stress level
  • A list of drugs you take



For sleep apnea, a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine keeps airways open so you can rest soundly. You can treat narcolepsy and restless legs syndrome with lifestyle changes and prescription medication. And there are drugs for insomnia, although good sleep habits can work just as well.



Anxiety makes insomnia worse, but cognitive-behavioral therapy can help ease your worries. Relaxation training and biofeedback calm your breathing, heart rate, muscles, and mood. Talk therapy can also quiet your mind.


Good Sleep Habit:

  • Exercise

You can do several things to prep for bedtime, and a regular workout should be a part of your plan. It’s easier to fall and stay asleep when your body’s tired. Exercise in the late afternoon though. Working up a sweat just hours before bedtime can have the opposite effect and keep you up.


  • Avoid Problem Foods

Some foods and drinks can be the stuff of nightmares. Avoid these 4-6 hours before bed:

  • Caffeine, including coffee, tea, and soda
  • Heavy or spicy foods
  • Alcohol (it helps some people fall asleep, but it can also make them wake up over and over again)


  • Helpful Foods

Try a light evening snack that’s high in carbs and easy to digest. A small bowl of cereal with milk or a small muffin fit the bill, but eat them at least an hour before calling it a day. Warm milk and chamomile tea raise your body temperature and can make you sleepy, too.


  • Turn Off the Tube

Is late-night TV part of your routine? Sure, it’s entertaining, but it also keeps you awake and alert. Playing video games and surfing the Internet can have the same effect. The National Sleep Foundation suggests that you remove televisions and computers from your bedroom.


  • Bedtime Rituals

Tell your mind and body that it's time to catch some ZZZs with a bedtime ritual. This can include a warm bath, a book, or relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. It's also important to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on the weekends. If you still have trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor.


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Menopause lightbox[Meno]Menopause


What is menopause?

Menopause is that period of life in which women cease menstrual periods. Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women. At this stage the ovaries do not produce eggs (ova) and female hormones such as estrogen or progesterone and the pregnancy is impossible.


At what age does a woman typically reach menopause?

The average age of menopause is 51 years old. However, it can vary from 30 to 60 years old. Menopause in a woman is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for a year.


What is "perimenopause"?

The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. Menopause is preceded by a phase of several months or several years called perimenopause. 'Perimenopause' represents the period of a woman's life shortly before the occurrence of the first symptoms of menopause. But in most cases symptoms of perimenopause and menopause in particular are often confused.


Which are the symptoms of menopause?

Menopause is a normal part of a woman's life and it should not be regarded as a disease or a problem. However, some women find it difficult to experience and become familiar with the symptoms caused by the absence of hormones.

It should be noted that women experience menopause differently. Some may not have any signs or symptoms, while others have more serious symptoms.

The main signs are: irregular menstrual periods (too close or too far), and irregular episodes of vaginal bleeding (less than usual or more). until the bleeding stops completely. Other signs may include:

  • Insomnia
  • Increase in weight
  • Nocturnal sweating
  • Hot flashes
  • Fatigue
  • Pain in the joints
  • Drying of the vagina
  • Problems with memory
  • Urinary infections
  • Changes in mood
  • Skin pruritus
  • Depression

In most cases these signs disappear after the first year of menopause.


The major problems of menopause

The most serious problems that a woman may experience during menopause are those associated with osteoporosis and heart.



Every day the human body "destroys" the old bone tissues replacing with new bone tissues. Estrogens have a principal role in this regeneration. Menopause is characterized by a lack of estrogens and therefore the regeneration of bone does not occur. For this reason the bones often become more porous and easily fractured. The most common fractures that osteoporosis causes in women at menopause are of the femoral neck fractures and the vertebral fractures. This condition is called osteoporosis. Thus, women who are over 45 years old should carry out a specific bone density test (bone densitometry).


Cardiac diseases

In menopause, women are more predisposed to be affected by heart disease. Loss of estrogen plays a role for heart disease. Problems can also get worse with the addition of other factors such as obesity, diabetes or hypertension. All these changes increase the risk for heart disease. Thus women in this period of life should be regularly checked by a doctor to have a balanced diet, to maintain control blood glucose, blood fats and to consistently perform physical exercises. In this way the risk for heart disease will be reduced.


Are the symptoms of menopause experienced in the same way?

Women experience menopause in different ways. Their experiences are related to genetic factors, diet, lifestyle and socio-cultural attitudes towards women in the areas where they live.

  • Women in rural areas and those who have born many children complain less about the symptoms of menopause.
  • Women who have a sedentary life with a diet rich in carbohydrates and fats and those who have born fewer children usually complain more about the symptoms of menopause.


What is premature Menopause?

Premature or early menopause occurs when a woman goes into menopause earlier than the expected age. This could happen immediately or gradually in the following situations:

Early menopause immediate:

  • The operations associated with the removal of the ovaries
  • Chemotherapy for treating cancer
  • Radiation therapy for treating cancer

Early menopause gradual:

  • Ovaries cease their function long before. Some women experience too early stopping of menstruation (before age 40).

In all these situations ovaries are removed or failed to produce hormones. Women who enter menopause immediately and prematurely experience more symptoms of menopause and therefore they need hormone replacement therapy.


How should prepare women for menopause?

Menopause is an important stage in the woman’s life. For some may be a difficult period rich with physical and emotional problems. For others it is a renaissance period. So, many women experience an increase in physical activity in menopause, which is also called the zeal of menopause.

Some of the recommended precautions are as follows:

  • Do not smoke.
  • Have a healthy diet, low-fat, with lots of fiber, with plenty of fruits, vegetables and rich in minerals and vitamins.
  • Make sure you get enough calcium and vitamin D - through diet or through medications that the doctor may prescribe.
  • Maintaining a normal body weight
  • Continuous physical activity.
  • Consumption of much liquids.
  • Consumption of cold drinks when you have hot flashes.
  • Use loose clothing so that the skin can breath normally.
  • Use vaginal lubricants or vaginal creams / ovules containing estrogens.
  • Routine checks including: pap test, gynecological ultrasound, mammography and mammary ultrasound.

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