Drive with Caution !

Drive with Caution ! lightbox[Driveeng]Drive with Caution !


Road traffic accidents are the main cause of deaths among youngsters aged 15-29. 

In October 2005, the General Assembly of United Nations adopted a resolution, which called upon the governments to commemorate the third Sunday of November as the World Day in memory of the victims of Road accidents. 

This day was created as a means to recognize the victims of road traffic as well as concerns of their relatives who need to cope with emotional consequences of these tragic incidents. 

It is commemorated to attract the public attention to road traffic accidents, their consequences and costs as well as measures to be taken in order to prevent them.



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Paracetamol and Ibuprofen, their use in children !

Paracetamol and Ibuprofen! lightbox[Dengueenglish]Paracetamol and Ibuprofen!


Paracetamol and Iboprufen are two qualitative medications that help reduce the temperature and relieve pain in children. 

In drug stores these medications are found as syrup form or suppository.

Paracetamol syrup 120 mg / 5 ml; 

Paracetamol suppository - 100mg, 125mg, 250mg. 

Fasdol (ibuprofen) - syrup 100mg / 5ml 

Fasdol suppository - 75mg, 150mg. 

Both these drugs are antipyretics and analgesics, but unlike Paracetamol, Fasdol (ibuprofen) is also anti-inflammatory.

The absence of anti-inflammatory activity of paracetamol to the fact that Paracetamol is an inhibitory (inhibitory) weak cyclooxygenase. This drug also inhibits the activity of neutrophils not unlike ibuprofen. Antipyretic activity is due to inhibition of ciclogenesis - 3 (COX-3). Rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (95-98%); rapidly distributed and metabolized in the organic fluid in liver. A very small fraction eliminated in urine (2-3%). 

Iboprufen through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase - 1 (COX-1) and Cyclooxygenase - (COX-2), leads to reduced synthesis of prostaglandins, the most important mediators of inflammation, pain and hyperpiesia (high temperature). Compared with paracetamol, Fasdol has a greater duration of action in the body. This is why making less, every 6 to 8 hours no more than 3 times a day.

Ibuprofen not being selective enzymes (COX -1, -2 COX) has the side effect of stomach irritation, so always consult his taking after meals. Paracetamol is easy as taking his medication but for a long time and in large doses impairs the liver. It is recommended receiving doses prescribed by a doctor or pharmacist, drinking every 4 to 6 hours and not more than 5 times in a 24 hour period. If the child at the same time taking another medication to avoid a potentially fatal overdose should ensure that other drug does not contain paracetamol. At high temperatures above 38.5 ° C it is recommended to take Fasdol (syrup or suppository), while at lower temperatures it is advisable always taking paracetamol as directed by your doctor or pharmacist.



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Six Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes !

Këshilla për të shmangur gabimet gjatë mjekimit me barna! lightbox[Councils]Këshilla për të shmangur gabimet gjatë mjekimit me barna!


  1. Find out the name of your medication. Rather than simply letting your doctor write a prescription and send you on your way, be sure to ask the name of the medication. This way you'll notice if the pharmacy gives you something different.Also, every time you receive a refill, look at the medication before you leave the pharmacy to make sure it looks the same as what you had before. Is it the same color, size, shape, and texture? Is the packaging the same? If anything about the medication seems different, ask the pharmacist about it."


  1. Ask questions about how to use the medication. It's important to choose a doctor and pharmacist that you feel comfortable with so that you can freely ask questions. Some good questions to ask:


What should I do if I forget a dose?

Should I take this medication before, during, or after meals?

What should the timing be between each dose?

What side effects might I have?

Are there any other medications, food, or activities that I should avoid while using this medication?

Should the medication be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature?


  1. Know what your medication is for. Stephen Setter, Pharm.D., associate professor of pharmacotherapy at Washington State University in Spokane, says one of his patients mistakenly thought her glaucoma medication was for treating headaches. "So she was taking her eye medication only when she had a headache, but she should have been taking it every day to treat her eye disease," Setter says. It's important to understand your medication because you are more likely to use it correctly, more likely to know what to expect from the medication, and better able to report what you are using and problems to your doctors and pharmacist.


  1. Read medicine labels and follow directions. Before you use any medication, you should know when to use it, how much to use, and how long to use it


  1. Keep all of your health care providers informed about your medications and dietary supplements (including vitamins and herbals). Make it a habit of showing your list of medications to all your health care professionals at every visit to the doctor, the pharmacy, and the hospital. Keeping all of your health care professionals informed about everything that you use will help ensure that you do not use two medicines with the same active ingredient or use anything that will interact with something else you are using.


Keep the list of your medications with you at all times and let a loved one know. Keep a list of your medications and dietary supplements with you at all times, such as in your wallet or purse, and keep a copy in your home. Share a copy of the medication list with a family member or friend, or let them know where you keep the list. In an emergency, that person will be able to inform your doctors of the medications and dietary supplements you use.


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Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders! lightbox[Disorders]Sleep Disorders!


What Are Sleep Disorders?

These conditions affect how much and how well you sleep. Causes range from poor habits that keep you awake to medical problems that disrupt your sleep cycle. If you don't feel rested in the mornings, see your doctor. Not getting enough shuteye is a serious problem that can threaten your health and safety.


The Dangers of Not Getting Enough ZZZs

Lack of sleep can take a toll on nearly every part of your life. Research links sleep deprivation to car accidents, relationship troubles, poor job performance, job-related injuries, memory problems, and mood disorders. Recent studies also suggest sleep disorders may contribute to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.


Symptoms of a Sleep Disorder

Symptoms depend on the type you have, but you might:

  • Feel very sleepy during the day
  • Have trouble falling or staying asleep
  • Snore
  • Stop breathing briefly and often while asleep (apnea)
  • Have uncomfortable feelings in your legs and the urge to move them (restless legs syndrome)


How Much Shuteye Do You Need?

Needs vary from person to person, but the general guidelines are:

  • 16 hours for infants
  • 9 hours for teenagers
  • 7-8 hours for adults

Keep in mind that some adults do fine with 5 hours, while others need as many as 10.



It’s normal to have trouble sleeping once in a while, but when the problem lingers night after night, you have insomnia. Do you lie awake for hours? Do you wake up too early and not able to drift off again? Do you wake up repeatedly throughout the night? Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder ,affecting a third of adults at some point in their lives.


Insomnia and Sleep Hygiene

In many cases, insomnia is related to bad habits before bed. Do you drink coffee in the afternoon or evening? Do you smoke or eat heavy foods at night? Do you go to bed at a different time each night? Do you fall asleep with the television on?


Insomnia and Mental Health

Mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder can also cause insomnia. Unfortunately, some of the medications used to treat these conditions can also cause sleep problems. If you think you’re losing ZZZs and your medication is to blame, talk to your doctor about adjusting your treatment.


Insomnia and Medical Conditions

Trouble sleeping is often linked to health problems such as:

  • Arthritis
  • Heartburn
  • Chronic pain
  • Asthma
  • COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
  • Heart failure
  • Thyroid problems
  • Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's


Other Causes

Pregnancy is another reason for insomnia, especially in the first and third trimesters. Menopause is, too, as hot flashes are uncomfortable. Both men and women tend to have sleep problems after 65. And shift workers and frequent flyers can get a circadian rhythm disorder. This means their “internal body clock” is out of whack.


Sleep Apnea

This means your breathing stops and starts over and over while you’re sleeping. The pauses last several seconds and trigger a switch from deep to light sleep. Apnea can make you very sleepy during the day. You might not even know you have it. But your spouse or partner can certainly tell you about your snores, snorts, and gasps.


Restless Legs Syndrome

Do you have an irresistible urge to move your legs? Do you have uncomfortable feelings in them, like a throb or tingle? Many describe it as pins and needles or a creepy-crawly sensation. It gets worse at night, which makes it tough to catch some winks. And you might have twitches that wake you up.



Do you find it hard to get through the day without naps, even after a good night’s rest? With narcolepsy, you can’t control it and suddenly fall asleep. Other warning signs include:

  • Loss of muscle control with strong emotions
  • Dream-like hallucinations as you fall asleep or wake up
  • Dreams during naps
  • When you wake up, you might also feel like you can’t move.



Do you get out of bed and wander around at night without knowing it? Do people tell you the next morning about your crazy adventures, things you don’t remember? It’s most common in children between the ages of 4 and 8, but it can happen to anyone.


Sleep Diary

If you think you have a sleep disorder, tell your doctor. He might ask you to write down your habits for 1-2 weeks. Include:

  • What time you got in and out of bed
  • How long and how well you slept
  • The amount of time you laid awake
  • What you ate/drank (especially caffeine and alcohol) and when
  • Your emotions and stress level
  • A list of drugs you take



For sleep apnea, a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine keeps airways open so you can rest soundly. You can treat narcolepsy and restless legs syndrome with lifestyle changes and prescription medication. And there are drugs for insomnia, although good sleep habits can work just as well.



Anxiety makes insomnia worse, but cognitive-behavioral therapy can help ease your worries. Relaxation training and biofeedback calm your breathing, heart rate, muscles, and mood. Talk therapy can also quiet your mind.


Good Sleep Habit:

  • Exercise

You can do several things to prep for bedtime, and a regular workout should be a part of your plan. It’s easier to fall and stay asleep when your body’s tired. Exercise in the late afternoon though. Working up a sweat just hours before bedtime can have the opposite effect and keep you up.


  • Avoid Problem Foods

Some foods and drinks can be the stuff of nightmares. Avoid these 4-6 hours before bed:

  • Caffeine, including coffee, tea, and soda
  • Heavy or spicy foods
  • Alcohol (it helps some people fall asleep, but it can also make them wake up over and over again)


  • Helpful Foods

Try a light evening snack that’s high in carbs and easy to digest. A small bowl of cereal with milk or a small muffin fit the bill, but eat them at least an hour before calling it a day. Warm milk and chamomile tea raise your body temperature and can make you sleepy, too.


  • Turn Off the Tube

Is late-night TV part of your routine? Sure, it’s entertaining, but it also keeps you awake and alert. Playing video games and surfing the Internet can have the same effect. The National Sleep Foundation suggests that you remove televisions and computers from your bedroom.


  • Bedtime Rituals

Tell your mind and body that it's time to catch some ZZZs with a bedtime ritual. This can include a warm bath, a book, or relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. It's also important to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on the weekends. If you still have trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor.


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Menopause lightbox[Meno]Menopause


What is menopause?

Menopause is that period of life in which women cease menstrual periods. Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women. At this stage the ovaries do not produce eggs (ova) and female hormones such as estrogen or progesterone and the pregnancy is impossible.


At what age does a woman typically reach menopause?

The average age of menopause is 51 years old. However, it can vary from 30 to 60 years old. Menopause in a woman is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for a year.


What is "perimenopause"?

The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. Menopause is preceded by a phase of several months or several years called perimenopause. 'Perimenopause' represents the period of a woman's life shortly before the occurrence of the first symptoms of menopause. But in most cases symptoms of perimenopause and menopause in particular are often confused.


Which are the symptoms of menopause?

Menopause is a normal part of a woman's life and it should not be regarded as a disease or a problem. However, some women find it difficult to experience and become familiar with the symptoms caused by the absence of hormones.

It should be noted that women experience menopause differently. Some may not have any signs or symptoms, while others have more serious symptoms.

The main signs are: irregular menstrual periods (too close or too far), and irregular episodes of vaginal bleeding (less than usual or more). until the bleeding stops completely. Other signs may include:

  • Insomnia
  • Increase in weight
  • Nocturnal sweating
  • Hot flashes
  • Fatigue
  • Pain in the joints
  • Drying of the vagina
  • Problems with memory
  • Urinary infections
  • Changes in mood
  • Skin pruritus
  • Depression

In most cases these signs disappear after the first year of menopause.


The major problems of menopause

The most serious problems that a woman may experience during menopause are those associated with osteoporosis and heart.



Every day the human body "destroys" the old bone tissues replacing with new bone tissues. Estrogens have a principal role in this regeneration. Menopause is characterized by a lack of estrogens and therefore the regeneration of bone does not occur. For this reason the bones often become more porous and easily fractured. The most common fractures that osteoporosis causes in women at menopause are of the femoral neck fractures and the vertebral fractures. This condition is called osteoporosis. Thus, women who are over 45 years old should carry out a specific bone density test (bone densitometry).


Cardiac diseases

In menopause, women are more predisposed to be affected by heart disease. Loss of estrogen plays a role for heart disease. Problems can also get worse with the addition of other factors such as obesity, diabetes or hypertension. All these changes increase the risk for heart disease. Thus women in this period of life should be regularly checked by a doctor to have a balanced diet, to maintain control blood glucose, blood fats and to consistently perform physical exercises. In this way the risk for heart disease will be reduced.


Are the symptoms of menopause experienced in the same way?

Women experience menopause in different ways. Their experiences are related to genetic factors, diet, lifestyle and socio-cultural attitudes towards women in the areas where they live.

  • Women in rural areas and those who have born many children complain less about the symptoms of menopause.
  • Women who have a sedentary life with a diet rich in carbohydrates and fats and those who have born fewer children usually complain more about the symptoms of menopause.


What is premature Menopause?

Premature or early menopause occurs when a woman goes into menopause earlier than the expected age. This could happen immediately or gradually in the following situations:

Early menopause immediate:

  • The operations associated with the removal of the ovaries
  • Chemotherapy for treating cancer
  • Radiation therapy for treating cancer

Early menopause gradual:

  • Ovaries cease their function long before. Some women experience too early stopping of menstruation (before age 40).

In all these situations ovaries are removed or failed to produce hormones. Women who enter menopause immediately and prematurely experience more symptoms of menopause and therefore they need hormone replacement therapy.


How should prepare women for menopause?

Menopause is an important stage in the woman’s life. For some may be a difficult period rich with physical and emotional problems. For others it is a renaissance period. So, many women experience an increase in physical activity in menopause, which is also called the zeal of menopause.

Some of the recommended precautions are as follows:

  • Do not smoke.
  • Have a healthy diet, low-fat, with lots of fiber, with plenty of fruits, vegetables and rich in minerals and vitamins.
  • Make sure you get enough calcium and vitamin D - through diet or through medications that the doctor may prescribe.
  • Maintaining a normal body weight
  • Continuous physical activity.
  • Consumption of much liquids.
  • Consumption of cold drinks when you have hot flashes.
  • Use loose clothing so that the skin can breath normally.
  • Use vaginal lubricants or vaginal creams / ovules containing estrogens.
  • Routine checks including: pap test, gynecological ultrasound, mammography and mammary ultrasound.

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